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  • A multi-stakeholder approach from a pilot projects design to implementation can lead to holistic planning and programme development for a medicinal plant-based conservation-led project.
  • A pilot project can be scaled-up and replicated successfully if it can demonstrate that the real target groups are the poorest and most marginalised families within communities and that the project has a method of reaching them through targeted activities.
  • Opening local peoples views and attitudes from purely traditional management practices of NTFPs to including scientific management practice is a gradual process.  Involving various levels of stakeholders together in project selection, planning, implementation, and monitoring is an effective approach.
  • Technical inputs combined with traditional knowledge produce an adaptive technology that is based on the cultural, social, environmental, and economic factors relevant to the local population. Adopted systematically adaptive technology can improve livelihoods.
  • Sustainable management of MAPs/NTFPs requires ecological and economic linkages. Quantitative and qualitative information on the MAP wildlife resource base provides a sound basis for designing management practices.
  • The role of trained and skilled community members in the management and marketing of MAPs/NTFPs is crucial and building links with market players essential.
  • Periodic review of progress and the planning process, and monitoring visits involving local stakeholders are important steps; exposure visits and observation tours are effective means to learn and share experiences.

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MAPPA is a network of development partners hosted by ICIMOD and supported by IDRC, The Ford Foundation and IFAD.
G.P.O. Box: 3226, Kathmandu, Nepal Tel: 977 -1 - 5003222, Fax: 977 -1 - 5003299, 5003277 Email:
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